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2016上交大考研:英语阅读历年出题思路
添加时间:2014/12/30  来源:文远上交大考研网  浏览数:3136

  首末端首末句

  (一)出题人命题思路破解

  文章本无意,源自出题人。也就是说,一篇文章包括前期的选取加工处理改造,最后设计出题,均源自出题人。文章千奇百怪,形式千变万化,但是出题人的出题思路和考查目的却是万变不离其宗。因此,学习阅读理解的过程其实就是破解出题人思路的过程。换位思考尤为重要。也就是说,假如我们自己是出题人,又会考查学生什么样的阅读能力,然后通过什么形式来考查学生?

  文远上交大考研老师认为,阅读理解最好的训练方法是自己拿一篇文章自己出五个问题。通过出题就一定可以理解出题人的出题用意和出题思路。不难发现,我们会按照以下思路考查学生。

  第一、文章中心思想是什么;第二、文章作者态度是什么;第三、某一个单词、词组或者句子本身是什么意思;第四、作者说某句话的意思是什么;第五、某一问题出现的原因是什么;第六、作者列举某一例子的目的是什么或者为了说明什么问题;第七、从某一段落或文章中能推断出什么来;第八、下面哪个选项是正确的或是不正确的;第九、作者的写作手法是什么;第十、文章节选于哪里;第十一、文章下文会继续提到什么;第十二、作者暗示什么;第十三、读懂前后句关系。

  (二)阅读理解常考点

  通过对历年来考题的有效解析,我们总结出以下十个阅读理解常考点:

  首末端首末句

  (1)文章首段首末句往往出“主旨大意题”。因为,英语文章的开始往往会采取开门见山的形式提出文章的中心思想。有些时候会在首段末句出现转折词but、however、yet,则转折后所要表述的内容往往是文章的中心思想,因此通常成为出题人出题点。

  【真题回放2010-Text1】

  Of all the changes that have taken place in English-language newspapers during the past quarter-century, perhaps the most far-reaching has been the inexorable decline in the scope and seriousness of their arts coverage.

  What would be the best title for the text?

  [A] Newspapers of the Good Old Days

  [B] The Lost Horizon in Newspapers

  [C] Mournful Decline of Journalism

  [D] Prominent Critics in Memory

  (2)末端首末句,通常会对全文的说明和论证进行总结,由此也会成为考查点通常会用一些总括性的标志词如:all in all、in short、to conclude、in consequence、in summary、in a word、as a result、therefore、accordingly、thus等引导。

  【真题回放2008-Text2】

  ① This is now changing. According to the OECD report, some 75% of scholarly journals are now online. ② Entirely new business models are emerging; three main ones were identified by the report's authors. ③ There is the so-called big deal, where institutional subscribers pay for access to a collection of online journal titles through site-licensing agreements. ④ There is open-access publishing, typically supported by asking the author (or his employer) to pay for the paper to be published. Finally, there are open-access archives, where organizations such as universities or international laboratories support institutional repositories. ⑤ Other models exist that are hybrids of these three, such as delayed open-access, where journals allow only subscribers to read a paper for the first six months, before making it freely available to everyone who wishes to see it. ⑥ All this could change the traditional form of the peer-review process, at least for the publication of papers.

  30. Which of the following best summarizes the text?

  [A] The Internet is posing a threat to publishers.

  [B] A new mode of publication is emerging.

  [C] Authors welcome the new channel for publication.

  [D] Publication is rendered easier by online service.

  转折

  一些明显的转折词包括but、however、yet(谓语句首)、 though、on the contrary; Although/ While/ In spite of/ Despite---,----;等,转折词前后的意思一般来说都是相反的,而作者往往偏重转折处后面的内容。因此,在阅读过程中看到转折词,考生最好能做上标志以方便做题时候的查找。

  【真题回放2008-Text3】

  The trend in sports, though, may be obscuring an unrecognized reality: Americans have generally stopped growing.

  35. The text intends to tell us that

  [A] the change of human height follows a cyclic pattern.

  [B] human height is becoming even more predictable.

  [C] Americans have reached their genetic growth limit.

  [D] the genetic pattern of Americans has altered.

  对比和类比处

  作者也经常把两个事物、两种观点进行对比,从而论证自己观点的正确性。表示对比的一些标志性词语有in contrast、in comparison、compared with 等。特别需要指出的是,只要文章第一段中出现对照或对比的内容,往往将在下文中进行具体的议论,并在文章最后得出结论,这通常是出题点。

  【真题回放2008-Text1】

  ① While still catching-up to men in some spheres of modern life, women appear to be way ahead in at least one undesirable category.② “Women are particularly susceptible to developing depression and anxiety disorders in response to stress compared to men,” according to Dr. Yehuda, chief psychiatrist at New York's Veteran's Administration Hospital.

  21. Which of the following is true according to the first two paragraphs?

  [A] Women are biologically more vulnerable to stress.

  [B] Women are still suffering much stress caused by men.

  [C] Women are more experienced than men in coping with stress.

  [D] Men and women show different inclinations when faced with stress.

  举例处

  (1)举例子:句子的作用是为了支持论证作者的观点,这些例子往往与作者的观点和结论有很大的关联,具有重大的意义,因此也成为了考试出题点。这种题目在文章中的线索非常明显,一般都带有如下的标志性词汇:for example、for instance、take … as an example、as、such as、like 等。举例子作用通常有三个:第一、证明论点,论点在前;第二、引出话题或得出结论,话题和结论在后;第三、通过对比突出强调事物的某一方面。

  【真题回放2011-Text3】

  ① If that happens, passionate consumers would try to persuade others to boycott products, putting the reputation of the target company at risk. ② In such a case, the company's response may not be sufficiently quick or thoughtful, and the learning curve has been steep. ③ Toyota Motor, for example, alleviated some of the damage from its recall crisis earlier this year with a relatively quick and well-orchestrated social-media response campaign, which included efforts to engage with consumers directly on sites such as Twitter and the social-news site Digg.

  34. Toyota Motor's experience is cited as an example of

  [A] responding effectively to hijacked media.

  [B] persuading customers into boycotting products.

  [C] cooperating with supportive consumers.

  [D] taking advantage of hijacked media.

  (2)列举:所谓列举是指通过一些表示顺承关系的词语逐项列出一些事实或者观点,标志性的词汇包括First、Second、Third…; Firstly、Secondly、Thirdly… Finally; First of all,、Then、In addition、Further、Furthermore、Besides、Moreover… 针对这一考点的题目通常考查文章细节,有时候也涉及对文章内容的推理判断。出题形式最多的往往是“是非判断题”。

  【真题回放2009-Text3】

  The early settlers of Massachusetts Bay included men of impressive education and influence in England. `Besides the ninety or so learned ministers who came to Massachusetts church in the decade after 1629,There were political leaders like John Winthrop, an educated gentleman, lawyer, and official of the Crown before he journeyed to Boston. There men wrote and published extensively, reaching both New World and Old World audiences, and giving New England an atmosphere of intellectual earnestness.

  38. The early ministers and political leaders in Massachusetts Bay__________.

  [A] were famous in the New World for their writings

  [B] gained increasing importance in religious affairs

  [C] abandoned high positions before coming to the New World

  [D] created a new intellectual atmosphere in New England

  因果关系处

  因果句通常是作者进行分析或者得出结论的地方。英语句子存在前因后果和前果后因,考生一定要弄清楚谁导致谁。出题者为了考查考生的阅读能力和逻辑分析能力,经常会把含有因果关系进行颠倒,将“因变成了果、果变成了因”,考生需要注意辨别实际的因果关系,防止混淆。表示因果关系的词语有:

  (1)原因because、because of、so、for、since、as、result from、originate from、derive from; base、basis、reason,、above all、after all等。

  【真题回放2007-Text2】

  ① The defining term of intelligence in humans still seems to be the IQ score, even though IQ tests are not given as often as they used to be. ② The test comes primarily in two forms: the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale and the Wechsler Intelligence Scales (both come in adult and children's version)。 ③ Generally costing several hundred dollars, they are usually given only by psychologists, although variations of them populate bookstores and the World Wide Web. ④ Superhigh scores like vos Savant's are no longer possible, because scoring is now based on a statistical population distribution among age peers, rather than simply dividing the mental age by the chronological age and multiplying by 100. ⑤ Other standardized tests, such as the Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT) and the Graduate Record Exam (GRE), capture the main aspects of IQ tests.

  28. People nowadays can no longer achieve IQ scores as high as vos Savant's because

  [A] the scores are obtained through different computational procedures.

  [B] creativity rather than analytical skills is emphasized now.

  [C] vos Savant's case is an extreme one that will not repeat.

  [D] the defining characteristic of IQ tests has changed.

  (2)结果:thus, therefore, consequently, in consequence, as a result; lead to, attribute to, result, consequence, result in, cause等。

  【真题回放1997-Text3】

  We live in a society in which the medicinal and social use of substances (drugs) is pervasive: an aspirin to quiet a headache, some wine to be sociable, coffee to get going in the morning, a cigarette for the nerves. When do these socially acceptable and apparently constructive uses of a substance become misuses? First of all, most substances taken in excess will produce negative effects such as poisoning or intense perceptual distortions. Repeated use of a substance can also lead to physical addiction or substance dependence. Dependence is marked first by an increased tolerance, with more and more of the substance required to produce the desired effect, and then by the appearance of unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the substance is discontinued.

  61. Physical dependence on certain substances results from ________.

  [A] uncontrolled consumption of them over long periods of time

  [B] exclusive use of them for social purposes

  [C] quantitative application of them to the treatment of diseases

  [D] careless employment of them for unpleasant symptoms

  (3)有时候文章中虽然没有出现表示因果关系的标志性词语,但是句与句在逻辑关系上也存在着因果关系,这个时候考生就需要自己进行仔细判断和推理。

  【真题回放2001-Text2】

  There are technological reasons to hope the digital divide will narrow. As the Internet becomes more and more commercialized, it is in the interest of business to universalize access — after all, the more people online, the more potential customers there are. More and more governments, afraid their countries will be left behind, want to spread Internet access. Within the next decade or two, one to two billion people on the planet will be netted together. As a result, I now believe the digital divide will narrow rather than widen in the years ahead. And that is very good news because the Internet may well be the most powerful tool for combating world poverty that we've ever had.

  56. Governments attach importance to the Internet because it ________.

  [A] offers economic potentials

  [B] can bring foreign funds

  [C] can soon wipe out world poverty

  [D] connects people all over the world

  类比比喻处

  类比在文中主要有两种体现方式,一是明喻,即A像B一样;二是暗喻,说A是B,由于暗喻更加隐蔽,出题人往往趋向于在暗喻内容上出题。考生还要熟记,“借喻或借代”也是出题人常考的地方,例如用“多米诺骨牌”进行借代等。

  【真题回放1997-Text1】

  The full import may take a while to sink in. The NT Rights of the Terminally Ill law has left physicians and citizens alike trying to deal with its moral and practical implications. Some have breathed sighs of relief, others, including churches, right-to-life groups and the Australian Medical Association, bitterly attacked the bill and the haste of its passage. But the tide is unlikely to turn back. In Australia — where an aging population, life-extending technology and changing community attitudes have all played their part — other states are going to consider making a similar law to deal with euthanasia. In the US and Canada, where the right-to-die movement is gathering strength, observers are waiting for the dominoes to start falling.

  52. When the author says that observers are waiting for the dominoes to start falling, he means ________.

  [A] observers are taking a wait-and-see attitude towards the future of euthanasia

  [B] similar bills are likely to be passed in the US, Canada and other countries

  [C] observers are waiting to see the result of the game of dominoes

  [D] the effect-taking process of the passed bill may finally come to a stop

  引用处

  说明文或者议论文中经常引用他人的观点来支持论证作者自己的观点。引文既可以是从正面来支持自己的观点,也可以是通过驳斥反面观点从而论证自己的观点。因此,引文间接地表达了作者自己的观点,有一定的隐蔽性和迷惑性,所以也是出题考查的热点地区,通常会考查考生的推理能力和对作者态度观点的判断能力。具体出现位置往往是第一段的第一句话。

  【真题回放2003-Text2】

  ① To paraphrase 18th-century statesman Edmund Burke, “all that is needed for the triumph of a misguided cause is that good people do nothing.” ② One such cause now seeks to end biomedical research because of the theory that animals have rights ruling out their use in research. ③ Scientists need to respond forcefully to animal rights advocates, whose arguments are confusing the public and thereby threatening advances in health knowledge and care. ④ Leaders of the animal rights movement target biomedical research because it depends on public funding, and few people understand the process of health care research. ⑤ Hearing allegations of cruelty to animals in research settings, many are perplexed that anyone would deliberately harm an animal.

  46. The author begins his article with Edmund Burke's words to ________.

  [A] call on scientists to take some actions

  [B] criticize the misguided cause of animal rights

  [C] warn of the doom of biomedical research

  [D] show the triumph of the animal rights movement

  长难句

  长难句,顾名思义,就是又长又难的句子,主要是一些句中套句的复杂结构,其中包含了同位语、插入语、定语、不定式、分词、各种从句等,使得句子长达好几行。因此这些复杂的句型也往往成为了试题命制的重点所在,主要考查考生对句中的指代关系和句子层次的理解,常见的题型是推理判断题。考生应该加强训练自己对付长难句的能力,平时练习中有意识地去分解这些句子,理解其中的指代关系和句子层次。

  【真题回放2007-Text4】

  ① Several massive leakages of customer and employee data this year – from organizations as diverse as Time Warner, the American defense contractor Science Applications International Corp and even the University of California, Berkeley – have left managers hurriedly peering into their intricate IT systems and business processes in search of potential vulnerabilities.

  37. According to Paragraph 2, some organizations check their systems to find out

  [A] whether there is any weak point.

  [B] what sort of data has been stolen.

  [C] who is responsible for the leakage.

  [D] how the potential spies can be located.

  特殊词汇

  考研阅读试题中经常考查考生对于一些词语和词汇的理解,这些特殊词汇包括了平时不经常使用的生僻词、常见词语平时不经常用到的意思或搭配、以及关系代词等。这类题目的解题关键在于读懂词汇所在文章位置的前后句及上下文,从而推断中其意思。

  【真题回放2010-Text2】

  Curbs on business-method claims would be a dramatic about-face, because it was the federal circuit itself that introduced such patents with is 1998 decision in the so-called state Street Bank case, approving a patent on a way of pooling mutual-fund assets. That ruling produced an explosion in business-method patent filings, initially by emerging internet companies trying to stake out exclusive rights to specific types of online transactions. Later, move established companies raced to add such patents to their files, if only as a defensive move against rivals that might beat them to the punch. In 2005, IBM noted in a court filing that it had been issued more than 300 business-method patents despite the fact that it questioned the legal basis for granting them. Similarly, some Wall Street investment films armed themselves with patents for financial products, even as they took positions in court cases opposing the practice.

  28. The word “about-face” (Line 1, Para 3) most probably means

  [A] loss of good will

  [B] increase of hostility

  [C] change of attitude

  [D] enhancement of dignity

  特殊标点符号

  有一些特殊的标点符号也经常成为出题的对象,因此考生应该对以下标点符号的用法较为熟悉:逗号、冒号、括号、破折号、引号以及问号。

  (1)逗号:两个逗号之间的内容、或者一个逗号后面的内容,通常都起到补充说明第一个逗号前面内容的作用。

  【真题回放2000-Text5】

  Certainly people do not seem less interested in success and its signs now than formerly. Summer homes, European travel, BMWs — the locations, place names and name brands may change, but such items do not seem less in demand today than a decade or two years ago. What has happened is that people cannot confess fully to their dreams, as easily and openly as once they could, lest they be thought pushing, acquisitive and vulgar. Instead, we are treated to fine hypocritical spectacles, which now more than ever seem in ample supply: the critic of American materialism with a Southampton summer home; the publisher of radical books who takes his meals in three-star restaurants; the journalist advocating participatory democracy in all phases of life, whose own children are enrolled in private schools. For such people and many more perhaps not so exceptional, the proper formulation is, “Succeed at all costs but avoid appearing ambitious.”

  69. Some people do not openly admit they have ambition because ________.

  [A] they think of it as immoral

  [B] their pursuits are not fame or wealth

  [C] ambition is not closely related to material benefits

  [D] they do not want to appear greedy and contemptible

  (2)冒号:其解释说明或者高度概括。

  【真题回放2007-Text4】

  ① It never rains but it pours. ② Just as bosses and boards have finally sorted out their worst accounting and compliance troubles, and improved their feeble corporation governance, a new problem threatens to earn them – especially in America – the sort of nasty headlines that inevitably lead to heads rolling in the executive suite: data insecurity. ③ Left, until now, to odd, low-level IT staff to put right, and seen as a concern only of data-rich industries such as banking, telecoms and air travel, information protection is now high on the boss's agenda in businesses of every variety.

  36. The statement “It never rains but it pours” is used to introduce

  [A] the fierce business competition.

  [B] the feeble boss-board relations.

  [C] the threat from news reports.

  [D] the severity of data leakage.

  (3)括号:其解释说明作用。

  【真题回放2006-Text2】

  ① Anyway, the townsfolk can't understand why the Royal Shakespeare Company needs a subsidy. (②The theatre has broken attendance records for three years in a row.③ Last year its 1,431 seats were 94 percent occupied all year long and this year they'll do better.)④ The reason, of course, is that costs have rocketed and ticket prices have stayed low.

  29. According to the townsfolk, the RSC deserves no subsidy because ________.

  [A] ticket prices can be raised to cover the spending

  [B] the company is financially ill-managed

  [C] the behavior of the actors is not socially acceptable

  [D] the theatre attendance is on the rise

  (4)破折号:两个破折号之间的内容往往充当插入语,其解释说明租用;一个破折号后面的内容,通常表示解释说明或者高度概括,作用类似于冒号。

  【真题回放2005-Text2】

  Fortunately, the White House is starting to pay attention. But it's obvious that a majority of the president's advisers still don't take global warming seriously. Instead of a plan of action, they continue to press for more research — a classic case of “paralysis by analysis.”

  28. What does the author mean by “paralysis by analysis” (Last line, Paragraph 4)?

  [A] Endless studies kill action.

  [B] Careful investigation reveals truth.

  [C] Prudent planning hinders progress.

  [D] Extensive research helps decision-making.

  (5)引号:表示引用他人的观点,或者突出强调,或者反语。

  【真题回放2011-Text4】

  ① It's no surprise that Jennifer Senior's insightful, provocative magazine cover story, “I love My Children, I Hate My Life,” is arousing much chatter – nothing gets people talking like the suggestion that child rearing is anything less than a completely fulfilling, life-enriching experience.② Rather than concluding that children make parents either happy or miserable, Senior suggests we need to redefine happiness: instead of thinking of it as something that can be measured by moment-to-moment joy, we should consider being happy as a past-tense condition. ③ Even though the day-to-day experience of raising kids can be soul-crushingly hard, Senior writes that “the very things that in the moment dampen our moods can later be sources of intense gratification and delight.”

  36.Jennifer Senior suggests in her article that raising a child can bring

  [A]temporary delight

  [B]enjoyment in progress

  [C]happiness in retrospect

  [D]lasting reward

  (6)问号:如果第一段开头设问,往往是引出下文或者设问句本身就是中心思想句;

  【真题回放2001-Text3】

  Why do so many Americans distrust what they read in their newspapers? The American Society of Newspaper Editors is trying to answer this painful question. The organization is deep into a long self-analysis known as the journalism credibility project.

  59. What is the passage mainly about?

  [A] needs of the readers all over the world

  [B] causes of the public disappointment about newspapers

  [C] origins of the declining newspaper industry

  [D] aims of a journalism credibility project

  Why mention the elementary schools? Because thanks to these schools our early mechanics, especially in the New England and Middle Atlantic states, were generally literate and at home in arithmetic and in some aspects of geometry and trigonometry.

  如果句中设问往往后面紧跟的句子是答案。

  【真题回放1997-Text1】

  Why mention the elementary schools? Because thanks to these schools our early mechanics, especially in the New England and Middle Atlantic states, were generally literate and at home in arithmetic and in some aspects of geometry and trigonometry.

  如果在文章最后一段最后一句话,往往可以省略不看。

  【真题回放2001-Text4】

  Yet the fact remains that the merger movement must be watched. A few weeks ago, Alan Greenspan warned against the megamergers in the banking industry. Who is going to supervise, regulate and operate as lender of last resort with the gigantic banks that are being created? Won't multinationals shift production from one place to another when a nation gets too strict about infringements to fair competition? And should one country take upon itself the role of “defending competition” on issues that affect many other nations, as in the U.S. vs. Microsoft case?

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